Types of Coffee
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Species of coffee plant
There are two types of coffee plant: Arabica and Robusta (Conilon). The "best" type coffees are Arabica, have intense flavor and sweetness with many variations of acidity, body and flavor. The gourmet and specialty coffees are 100% Arabica. The Arabian has 50% less caffeine than Robusta.
Blends. Each variety of plant Arabica coffee has specific attributes of aroma, body, acidity and sweetness. Combinations, or Blends are developed to balance or enhance the best qualities of each variety of Arabica coffee.
Varieties of Coffee
There are many varieties of Arabica coffee plant. The most common in the best producing areas in Brazil are: Bourbon, Catuai, Acaiá and New World. And among these varieties, there are also several sub-varieties: Bourbon Red and Yellow, Red and Yellow Catuai, New World varieties, etc.. Below the characteristics of some of the main varieties.
Flavor characteristics. It is considered one of the best varieties for the production of gourmet coffees. Its intense aroma, softness, texture and chocolatey sweet taste confer unique characteristics. However, remember that the soil, climate, altitude and drying processes are essential to maximize all these characteristics.
Characteristics of the variety. Plants reach up to 3 meters in height having a cylindrical shape. The fruits have the same format as regular coffee, but with a reduced size. Their productivity is lower when compared to other commercial varieties. It is very susceptible to pests and diseases.
Flavor characteristics. It is a light and smooth coffee with medium acidity. One of the few who can take without sugar. Planted at higher altitudes provide a stronger flavor, allowing the coffee beans absorb more intensely natural sugars during their maturation process. Therefore, plantations altitude above 1,000 meters have the best flavors. The Catuai yellow is less stocky than red. Therefore, depending on the desired flavor blend which includes both one can be more satisfactory.
Characteristics of the variety. The cultivation of coffee Catuai Red and Yellow Catuai have been a favorite of Brazilian producers, occupying a large part of the park's most coffee producing regions. They have the advantages of low stature of the plant, which facilitates treatment and harvest. Also have lower attack damage by rust, a fungus very common in plants of arabica coffee. The Catuai, which means "very good", lives up to the name, because it is very rustic. Fits nicely in average temperatures in the range 18-22 ° C, found in highlands above 800 m altitude.
Characteristics of the variety. The fruits with uneven ripening because of 3 blooms. In producing the first 10%, the second 80% and the last 10%. This provides a coffee of excellent quality due to the low percentage of green beans obtained at harvest.
Official Brazilian Rating (COB)
The COB 7 comprises Arabica coffee types, ranging from 2 to 8, resulting from the ascertained number of defects in a sample of 300 grams of green coffee beans. The larger the number the smaller the COB type of gourmet coffee quality, since the BOC greater the greater the number of defects ascertained in the samples. The COB type 3 has up to 12 è considered defects and the coffee bean best quality for export. The COB has to type 2 and type 4 defects 8 to 360 defects per sample. Defects are considered: coffee bean black, flamed, stone, wood.